Radiographic Anatomy and Positioning I

RAD101

Introduction to basic terminology used in radiographic positioning, providing a comprehensive study of the basic positions of the human body for radiographic examination. Course content is delivered via classroom instruction, laboratory setting for demonstration of student competency, and in a clinical setting for practical application, under the direction of the clinical supervisor. Fall Only.

2.50 Credits: 2 Lecture, 1.50 Lab

Corequisites:
BIO115

Principles of Radiographic Exposure I

RAD102

Introduction to the fundamental concepts and techniques relating to the production of x-radiation and its application to radiography. Topics include: atomic structure, radiation exposure factors, x-ray tube construction, basic radiation protection, controlling and influencing factors that affect radiographic quality, x-ray interaction with matter, and clinical applications. Fall Only.

3 Credits: 3 Lecture

Corequisites:
MTH124 or MTH180 or MTH190 or MTH230 or MTH240 or MTH242

Radiography Ethics and Orientation

RAD103

Introduction to the radiography profession and the basic dilemmas a first-year radiography student encounters in his/her studies and work. Emphasis on patient care and education. Preparation to deal with patients of all ages, races, religions, social standings, and with varied types of injuries/illnesses. Focus on the importance of medical and legal considerations and their impact on the healthcare professional with emphasis on patients, their comfort and welfare during radiographic examinations and procedures. Fall Only.

1.50 Credits: 1.50 Lecture

Corequisites:
RAD101, RAD102, RAD105

Radiography Clinical Practicum I

RAD105

Clinical Radiography Experience applies radiographic theory and provides learning experiences toward acquiring expertise and proficiency at specified levels of competency in a variety of diagnostic radiographic procedures, including darkroom applications, basic radiation protection standards, various radiographic equipment, and anatomy and physiology and radiographic positioning. Integrates knowledge of patient care, management and medical ethics into daily radiographic practice. The student will complete 180 hours of clinic during this course. Transportation is the responsibility of the student. Student must have current CPR certification. Transportation will be the responsibility of the student.Fall Only.

1 Credit: 0 Lecture, 3 Clinical

Corequisites:
RAD101, RAD102, RAD103

Radiographic Anatomy and Positioning II

RAD113

Advanced study of radiographic positions, trauma and pediatric positioning, and radiographic film evaluation. Classroom instruction is supported by laboratory instruction and practice. Further practice comes in a clinical setting under the guidance of a clinical supervisor and/or a supervising staff radiographer. Spring Only.

2.50 Credits: 2 Lecture, 1.50 Lab

Corequisites:
BIO125

Prerequisites:
RAD101 and RAD102 and RAD103 and RAD105

Principles of Radiographic Exposure II

RAD114

Comprehensive analysis of the factors affecting image quality; study requires integration of technical factors previously learned. Emphasis on principles of low dosage radiography, geometry of image formation, analysis of radiographic quality, tube rating charts, radiation interaction, and practical application of radiographic technique and equipment. Spring Only.

3 Credits: 3 Lecture

Corequisites:
PHS112

Prerequisites:
RAD101 and RAD102 and RAD103 and RAD105

Radiographic Equipment and Maintenance

RAD115

Overview of the various parts of radiographic equipment, including each part’s individual functionality as well as its role within an operational radiographic room. Course work also includes learning to test equipment for proper operation. Spring Only.

1 Credit: 1 Lecture

Prerequisites:
RAD101 and RAD102 and RAD103 and RAD105

Radiographic Nursing Procedures

RAD116

Introduction to the theory and application of the clinical aspects of patient care and medical techniques in the radiology department. Spring Only.

1.50 Credits: 1.50 Lecture

Prerequisites:
RAD101 and RAD102 and RAD103 and RAD105

Contrast Media and Operating Room Procedures

RAD117

Study of the use of contrast media in imaging procedures. Topics include patient information gathering, pharmacology, adverse reactions, and imaging techniques. Also includes introduction to electricity and operating room imaging procedures and protocols. Spring Only.

1 Credit: 1 Lecture

Prerequisites:
RAD101 and RAD102 and RAD103 and RAD105

Radiography Practicum II

RAD118

Clinical learning experience that applies classroom theory to actual practice of technical skills on specific levels of competency. Designed to enable acquisition of expertise and proficiency in a variety of diagnostic radiographic procedures. Refining of radiation safety practices, radiographic positioning, patient care, ethics, and radiographic equipment proficiency. The student will complete 180 hours of clinic during this course. Transportation is the responsibility of the student. Student must have current CPR certification. Transportation will be the responsibility of the student.Spring Only.

1 Credit: 0 Lecture, 3 Clinical

Corequisites:
RAD113, RAD114, RAD115, RAD116, RAD117

Prerequisites:
RAD101 and RAD102 and RAD103 and RAD105

Practicum I

RAD201

First summer internship course emphasizing proficiency and expertise in a variety of diagnostic radiographic procedures. Classroom knowledge applied to clinical applications. Patient care and assessment, radiation safety, and medical ethics skills will be demonstrated under director and indirect supervision. A minimum of 450 hours (37.5 hours/week) in the clinic environment is required. Transportation will be the responsibility of the student. Student must have current CPR certification. Transportation will be the responsibility of the student.Summer Only.

1 Credit: 0 Lecture, 5 Internship

Prerequisites:
RAD113 and RAD114 and RAD115 and RAD116 and RAD117 and RAD118

Practicum II

RAD202

Second summer internship provides an integration of all clinical learning experiences so students can achieve final competency and proficiency in radiographic procedures including mobile and surgical equipment manipulation and technique application, as well as in a variety of radiographic examinations previously encountered in prior semesters. Competencies will be demonstrated by integrating problem-solving scenarios and/or actual clinical experiences in areas such as patient needs, non-traditional patients, stress related patient reactions, and the need to understand criticism as it applies to the employer/employee work relationship. The student will complete 450 hours (37.5 hours/week) of clinic during this course. Transportation will be the responsibility of the student. Student must have current CPR certification. Transportation will be the responsibility of the student.Summer Only.

1 Credit: 0 Lecture, 5 Internship

Prerequisites:
RAD251

Radiographic Anatomy and Positioning III

RAD220

Continuation of Radiographic Anatomy and Positioning I and II, covering additional radiographic positions, trauma and pediatric positioning, and radiographic film evaluation. The majority of the semester is spent on techniques required to x-ray the human skull properly. Course content is delivered via classroom instruction, laboratory setting for demonstration of student competency, and in a clinical setting for practical application under the direction of the clinical supervisor. Fall Only.

2.50 Credits: 2 Lecture, 1.50 Lab

Prerequisites:
RAD113 and RAD114 and RAD115 and RAD116 and RAD117 and RAD118 and RAD201

Principles of Radiographic Exposure III

RAD221

In depth study that builds upon material presented in prerequisite exposure courses to provide a thorough understanding of radiographic image quality. Concepts covered include radiographic density, contrast, definition and distortion and their controlling factors of mA, kVp, and S (time) to prepare radiographic images of optimum quality. Additionally, concepts in radiographic quality assurance and control procedures and techniques are explored. Fall Only.

3.50 Credits: 3.50 Lecture

Prerequisites:
RAD113 and RAD114 and RAD115 and RAD116 and RAD117 and RAD118 and RAD201

Interventional Radiography

RAD223

Comprehensive study of basic special procedures and overview of interventional radiography exams and principals. Emphasis on angiography, myelography, hysterosalpigography, and cardiac and vascular interventions. Content areas include indications for examinations, equipment, examination protocols, radiographic anatomy and special needs of patients undergoing those procedures. Spring Only.

.50 Credit: .50 Lecture

Prerequisites:
PHS222 and RAD220 and RAD221 and RAD225 and RAD226 and RAD227 and RAD228

Radiography Practicum III

RAD225

Clinical radiography experience continues to apply radiographic theory and technical applications. Clinical learning experiences enable students to acquire expertise and proficiency in a variety of diagnostic radiographic procedures and techniques including radiation protection applications, quality assurance, interventional and special radiographic examinations. An understanding of anatomy and physiology and radiographic positioning will be required at specific levels of competency. The student will complete 180 hours of clinic during this course. Transportation will be the responsibility of the student. Student must have current CPR certification. Transportation will be the responsibility of the student.Fall Only.

1 Credit: 0 Lecture, 5 Practicum

Corequisites:
RAD220, RAD221, RAD226, RAD227, RAD228

Prerequisites:
RAD201

Pediatric and Trauma Radiography

RAD226

Comprehensive study of radiographic concepts relating to pediatric and trauma radiography. Emphasis on pathologies commonly radiographed in pediatric and trauma patients and the modifications necessary to obtain diagnostic images in these specific patient groups. Topics covered include effective communication skills, pediatric immobilization, equipment manipulation, technique adjustment, positioning protocols, and common pathologies. Designed to develop critical-thinking skills for non-routine radiographic exams. Fall Only.

1 Credit: 1 Lecture

Corequisites:
RAD220, RAD221, RAD225, RAD227, RAD228

Prerequisites:
RAD201

Radiation Protection

RAD227

Provides an overview of the principles of radiation protection and radiobiology. Radiation protection responsibilities of the radiographer for the patient, personnel, and the public are presented. The concepts of As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA), Negligible Individual Risk Level (NIRL), and stochastic and non-stochastic effects will be discussed and compared with the concept of Maximum Permissible Dose (MPD). Regulatory agencies will be identified and agency involvement in radiation protection will be discussed. In addition, the basic effects of ionizing radiation on cells and the human body will be discussed. Special emphasis is placed on the effects of x-radiation for students enrolled in the Radiography program. (Formerly RAD 222) Fall Only.

3 Credits: 3 Lecture

Corequisites:
PHS222

Prerequisites:
RAD113 and RAD114 and RAD115 and RAD116 and RAD117 and RAD118 and RAD201

Digital Image Acquisition and Display

RAD228

Study of the components, principles, and operation of digital imaging systems found in diagnostic radiology. Topics include the factors that impact image acquisition, display, archiving, and retrieval, as well as the principles of digital system quality assurance and maintenance. Guidelines for selecting exposure factors and evaluating images within a digital system create a conceptual bridge between film-based and digital imaging systems. Fall Only.

1.50 Credits: 1.50 Lecture

Prerequisites:
RAD201

Introduction to CT and MRI Imaging

RAD247

Basic study of the theory and application of Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Computerized Tomography. Aspects of electronic digital imaging are included. Spring Only.

3 Credits: 3 Lecture

Prerequisites:
RAD220 and RAD221 and RAD225 and RAD226 and RAD227 and RAD228

Pathology

RAD248

Topics in human pathology on a gross anatomic level. Inflammatory, immunology, infections, traumatic and neoplastic processes are emphasized. Specific diseases are studied in depth from an organ system approach. Spring Only.

1 Credit: 1 Lecture

Prerequisites:
RAD220 and RAD221 and RAD222 and RAD223 and RAD224 and RAD225; or
RAD220 and RAD221 and RAD223 and RAD225 and RAD227; or
RAD220 and RAD221 and RAD225 and RAD226 and RAD227 and RAD228

Cross Sectional Anatomy for Radiographers

RAD249

Introduction to human anatomy in a cross-sectional image format. Concepts of human anatomy and physiology using transverse, coronal, and sagittal MRI and CT imaged sections of the human body are explored. Spring Only.

1 Credit: 1 Lecture

Prerequisites:
BIO125 and RAD225

Radiography Practicum IV

RAD251

Clinical radiography experience applies radiographic theory and integrates previous clinical experiences. Expertise and proficiency are gained in fluoroscopic radiographic studies, tomography, urinary radiographic procedures, and pediatric and geriatric radiographic applications at specified levels of competency. The student will complete 180 hours of clinic during this course. Transportation will be the responsibility of the student. Student must have current CPR certification. Transportation will be the responsibility of the student.Spring Only.

1 Credit: 0 Lecture, 5 Practicum

Corequisites:
RAD223, RAD247, RAD248, RAD249, RAD254

Prerequisites:
RAD225

Introduction to Mammography

RAD252

An introductory study of Mammography. Content areas include an overview of breast anatomy, positioning, equipment, exposure, image analysis, patient history, and quality assurance. 8 hours of didactic instruction in the Penn College classroom with an optional observational opportunity with permission from clinical affiliates. Spring Only.

.50 Credit: .50 Lecture

Prerequisites:
PHS222 and RAD220 and RAD221 and RAD225 and RAD226 and RAD227 and RAD228

Radiographic Anatomy and Positioning IV

RAD254

Radiographic concepts relating to upper and lower gastrointestinal systems, gallbladder, urinary system, OB/GYN, and pelvimetry radiographic examinations. A human diversity component promotes better understanding of patients, the patient's families, and professional peers through comparisons of value systems, cultural and ethnic influences, communication styles, socioeconomic influences, health risks, and life stages. Study includes the factors that influence relationships with patients and professional peers. (Formerly RAD246) Spring Only.

1.50 Credits: 1.50 Lecture

Prerequisites:
RAD220 and RAD221 and RAD225 and RAD226 and RAD227 and RAD228