College Catalog

Course Descriptions

Radiographic Anatomy and Positioning I

RAD101

Introduction to basic terminology used in radiographic positioning, providing a comprehensive study of the basic positions of the human body for radiographic examination. Course content is delivered via classroom instruction, laboratory setting for demonstration of student competency, and in a clinical setting for practical application, under the direction of the clinical supervisor. 2.50 Credits (2 Lecture - 1.50 Lab) Corequisite(s): BIO115. Fall Only.

Principles of Radiographic Exposure I

RAD102

Introduction to the fundamental concepts and techniques relating to the production of x-radiation and its application to radiography. Topics include: atomic structure, radiation exposure factors, x-ray tube construction, basic radiation protection, controlling and influencing factors that affect radiographic quality, x-ray interaction with matter, and clinical applications. 3 Credits (3 Lecture) Corequisite(s): MTH180. Fall Only.

Radiography Ethics and Orientation

RAD103

Introduction to the radiography profession and the basic and elementary problems a first-year radiography student will encounter in his/her daily studies and work. Emphasis on patient care and education. Student learn how to deal with patients of all ages, races, religions, social standings, and with varied types of injuries/illnesses; the importance of medicolegal considerations and their impact on the healthcare professional; and, most importantly, that the patients, their comfort, and their welfare are the prime concern. 1.50 Credits (1.50 Lecture) Fall Only.

Radiography Practicum I

RAD105

Clinical radiography experience applies radiographic theory and provides learning experiences to help the student acquire expertise and proficiency in a variety of diagnostic radiographic procedures at specified levels of competency. Students work with darkroom applications, learn basic radiation protection standards, become familiar with various radiographic equipment, and show competency in anatomy and physiology and radiographic positioning. Course work integrates knowledge of patient care and management and medical ethics into daily radiographic practice with a minimum of 15 hours in the clinical environment per week. Student must have current CPR certification. 1 Credit (0 Lecture - 5 Practicum) Corequisite(s): RAD101 and RAD102 and RAD103 and RAD106. Transportation will be the responsibility of the student. Fall Only.

Introduction to Radiographic Image Processing

RAD106

Comprehensive study of the design and function of a digital imaging workstation and radiographic darkroom. Emphasis on the clinical aspects of Computed Radiography (CR), Digital Radiography (DR), Picture Archiving and Communications Systems (PACS), and film processing. Discussion also includes traditional film and screen interactions and relationships, as well as efficient darkroom (processing) procedures. Course work includes sensitometric film analysis/interpretation as well as CR/DR and PACS post-processing. Student must have acceptance into the Radiography (RD) major prior to enrolling in this course. (Formerly RAD104) 1.50 Credits (1.50 Lecture)

Radiographic Anatomy and Positioning II

RAD113

Advanced study of radiographic positions, trauma and pediatric positioning, and radiographic film evaluation. Classroom instruction is supported by laboratory instruction and practice. Further practice comes in a clinical setting under the guidance of a clinical supervisor and/or a supervising staff radiographer. 2.50 Credits (2 Lecture - 1.50 Lab) Prerequisite(s): RAD101 and RAD102 and RAD103 and RAD105 and RAD106. Corequisite(s): BIO125. Spring Only.

Principles of Radiographic Exposure II

RAD114

Comprehensive analysis of the factors affecting image quality; study requires integration of technical factors previously learned. Emphasis on principles of low dosage radiography, geometry of image formation, analysis of radiographic quality, tube rating charts, radiation interaction, and practical application of radiographic technique and equipment. 3 Credits (3 Lecture) Prerequisite(s): RAD101 and RAD102 and RAD103 and RAD105 and RAD106 or RAD101 and RAD102 and RAD103 and RAD104 and RAD105. Corequisite(s): PHS112. Spring Only.

Radiographic Equipment and Maintenance

RAD115

Overview of the various parts of radiographic equipment, including each part's individual functionality as well as its role within an operational radiographic room. Course work also includes learning to test equipment for proper operation. 1 Credit (1 Lecture) Prerequisite(s): RAD101 and RAD102 and RAD103 and RAD105 and RAD106 or RAD101 and RAD102 and RAD103 and RAD104 and RAD105. Spring Only.

Radiographic Nursing Procedures

RAD116

Introduction to the theory and application of the clinical aspects of patient care and medical techniques in the radiology department. 1.50 Credits (1.50 Lecture) Prerequisite(s): RAD101 and RAD102 and RAD103 and RAD105 and RAD106 or RAD101 and RAD102 and RAD103 and RAD104 and RAD105. Spring Only.

Contrast Media and Operating Room Procedures

RAD117

Study of the use of contrast media in imaging procedures. Topics include patient information gathering, pharmacology, adverse reactions, and imaging techniques. Also includes introduction to electricity and operating room imaging procedures and protocols. 1 Credit (1 Lecture) Prerequisite(s): RAD101 and RAD102 and RAD103 and RAD105 and RAD106 or RAD101 and RAD102 and RAD103 and RAD104 and RAD105. Spring Only.

Radiography Practicum II

RAD118

Clinical learning experience that applies classroom theory to actual practice of technical skills on specific levels of competency. Designed to help students acquire expertise and proficiency in a variety of diagnostic radiographic procedures. Clinical requirement: a minimum of 15 hours per week. 1 Credit (0 Lecture - 5 Practicum) Prerequisite(s): RAD101 and RAD102 and RAD103 and RAD104 and RAD105 or RAD101 and RAD102 and RAD103 and RAD105 and RAD106. Corequisite(s): RAD113 and RAD114 and RAD115 and RAD116 and RAD117. Spring Only.

Practicum I

RAD201

First summer internship, providing clinical learning experiences that help the student acquire expertise and proficiency in a variety of diagnostic radiographic procedures by applying classroom theory to the actual practice of technical skills at specified levels of competency. Through research, each student prepares a written paper that demonstrates knowledge of topics relating to, but not limited to, radiation protection, student/staff/patient communication, or pediatric radiography. A minimum of 450 hours in the clinic environment is required. Student must have current CPR certification. 1 Credit (0 Lecture - 5 Internship) Prerequisite(s): RAD113 and RAD114 and RAD115 and RAD116 and RAD117 and RAD118. Transportation will be the responsibility of the student. Summer Only.

Practicum II

RAD202

Second summer internship, integrating all clinical learning experiences so students can achieve final competency and proficiency in radiographic procedures, including mobile and surgical equipment manipulation and technique application, as well as in a variety of radiographic examination previously encountered in prior semesters. Additionally, students will have the opportunity to apply MRI, CT, and cross-sectional anatomy applications and techniques. Students will demonstrate affective domain competency by integrating problem-solving scenarios and/or actual clinical experiences in areas such as: patient needs, non-traditional patients, stress related patient reactions, and criticism as it applies to the employer/employee work relationship. A minimum of 450 hours in the clinic environment is required. Student must have current CPR certification. 1 Credit (0 Lecture - 5 Internship) Prerequisite(s): RAD226 and RAD247 and RAD248 and RAD249 and RAD251 and RAD254 or RAD226 and RAD246 and RAD247 and RAD248 and RAD249 and RAD251. Transportation will be the responsibility of the student. Summer Only.

Radiographic Anatomy and Positioning III

RAD220

Continuation of Radiographic Anatomy and Positioning I and II, covering additional radiographic positions, trauma and pediatric positioning, and radiographic film evaluation. The majority of the semester is spent on techniques required to x-ray the human skull properly. Course content is delivered via classroom instruction, laboratory setting for demonstration of student competency, and in a clinical setting for practical application under the direction of the clinical supervisor. 2.50 Credits (2 Lecture - 1.50 Lab) Prerequisite(s): RAD113 and RAD114 and RAD115 and RAD116 and RAD117 and RAD118 and RAD201. Fall Only.

Principles of Radiographic Exposure III

RAD221

In depth study that builds upon material presented in prerequisite exposure courses to provide a thorough understanding of radiographic image quality. Concepts covered include radiographic density, contrast, definition and distortion and their controlling factors of mA, kVp, and S (time) to prepare radiographic images of optimum quality. Additionally, concepts in radiographic quality assurance and control procedures and techniques are explored. 3.50 Credits (3.50 Lecture) Prerequisite(s): RAD113 and RAD114 and RAD115 and RAD116 and RAD117 and RAD118 and RAD201. Fall Only.

Interventional Radiography

RAD223

Comprehensive study of all aspects of special procedures and interventional radiography. Emphasis on angiography, ultrasound, myelography, arteriography, and venography. Content areas include indications for examinations, equipment, examination protocols, and patient care. Additional exploration includes special and interventional procedures and the special needs of patients undergoing those procedures. 1 Credit (1 Lecture) Prerequisite(s): RAD113 and RAD114 and RAD115 and RAD116 and RAD117 and RAD118 and RAD201 or RAD220 and RAD221 and RAD225 and RAD226 and RAD227 and RAD228. Spring Only.

Radiography Practicum III

RAD225

Clinical radiography experience that continues to apply radiographic theory and technical applications. Clinical learning experiences enable student to acquire expertise and proficiency in a variety of diagnostic radiographic procedures and techniques, including radiation protection applications, quality assurance, interventional and special radiographic examinations. An understanding of anatomy and physiology and radiographic positioning is required at specified levels of competency. A minimum of 15 hours in the clinic environment per week is required. Student must have current CPR certification. 1 Credit (0 Lecture - 5 Practicum) Prerequisite(s): RAD201. Corequisite(s): RAD220 and RAD221 and RAD227 and RAD228 or RAD220 and RAD221 and RAD223 and RAD227. Transportation will be the responsibility of the student. Fall Only.

Pediatric and Trauma Radiography

RAD226

Comprehensive study of basic concepts regarding pediatric and trauma radiology. Students receive instruction in the classroom and demonstrate competence in such specific areas as radiographing patients with facial injuries, head injuries, and fractures, as well as transporting, radiographing, and restraining pediatric patients. Emphasis on the importance of special care needed when radiographing serve trauma and pediatric patients. (Formerly RAD250) 1 Credit (1 Lecture) Prerequisite(s): RAD113 and RAD114 and RAD115 and RAD116 and RAD117 and RAD118 and RAD201. Fall Only.

Radiation Protection

RAD227

Overview of the principles of radiation protection and radiobiology. Radiation protection responsibilities of the radiographer for the patient, personnel, and the public are presented. The concepts of As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA), Negligible Individual Risk Level (NIRL), and stochastic and non-stochastic effects are discussed and compared with the concept of Maximum Permissible Dose (MPD). Discussion includes an overview of regulatory agencies and their involvement in radiation protection. In addition, the basic effects of ionizing radiation on cells and the human body are discussed. Emphasis on the effects of x-radiation for Radiography students, (Formerly RAD222) 3 Credits (3 Lecture) Prerequisite(s): RAD113 and RAD114 and RAD115 and RAD116 and RAD117 and RAD118 and RAD201. Corequisite(s): PHS222. Fall Only.

Digital Image Acquisition and Display

RAD228

Study of the components, principles, and operation of digital imaging systems found in diagnostic radiology. Topics include the factors that impact image acquisition, display, archiving, and retrieval, as well as the principles of digital system quality assurance and maintenance. Guidelines for selecting exposure factors and evaluating images within a digital system create a conceptual bridge between film-based and digital imaging systems. 1.50 Credits (1.50 Lecture) Prerequisite(s): RAD201. Fall Only.

Introduction to CT and MRI Imaging

RAD247

Basic study of the theory and application of Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Computerized Tomography. Aspects of electronic digital imaging are included. 3 Credits (3 Lecture) Prerequisite(s): RAD220 and RAD221 and RAD222 and RAD223 and RAD224 and RAD225 or RAD220 and RAD221 and RAD223 and RAD225 and RAD227 or RAD220 and RAD221 and RAD225 and RAD226 and RAD227 and RAD228. Spring Only.

Pathology

RAD248

Topics in human pathology on a gross anatomic level. Inflammatory, immunology, infections, traumatic and neoplastic processes are emphasized. Specific diseases are studied in depth from an organ system approach. 1 Credit (1 Lecture) Prerequisite(s): RAD220 and RAD221 and RAD222 and RAD223 and RAD224 and RAD225 or RAD220 and RAD221 and RAD223 and RAD225 and RAD227 or RAD220 and RAD221 and RAD225 and RAD226 and RAD227 and RAD228. Spring Only.

Cross Sectional Anatomy for Radiographers

RAD249

Introduction to human anatomy in a cross-sectional image format. Course work builds upon student knowledge of human anatomy and physiology using transverse, coronal, and saggital MRI and CT imaged sections of the human body. 1 Credit (1 Lecture) Prerequisite(s): BIO115 and BIO125 and RAD220 and RAD221 and RAD222 and RAD223 and RAD224 and RAD225 or BIO115 and BIO125 and RAD220 and RAD221 and RAD223 and RAD225 and RAD227 or BIO115 and BIO125 and RAD220 and RAD221 and RAD225 and RAD226 and RAD227 and RAD228. Spring Only.

Radiography Practicum IV

RAD251

Clinical radiography experience applies radiographic theory and integrates previous clinical experiences. Expertise and proficiency is gained in fluoroscopic radiographic studies, tomography, urinary radiographic procedures, pediatric and geriatric radiographic applications at specified levels of competency. A minimum of 15 hours in the clinic environment per week is required. Student must have current CPR certification. 1 Credit (0 Lecture - 5 Practicum) Prerequisite(s): RAD220 and RAD221 and RAD225 and RAD227 and RAD228 or RAD220 and RAD221 and RAD223 and RAD225 and RAD227. Corequisite(s): RAD223 and RAD247 and RAD248 and RAD249 and RAD254. Transportation will be the responsibility of the student. Spring Only.

Introduction to Mammography

RAD252

Comprehensive, in-depth study of all aspects of mammography. Content areas include breast anatomy, positioning, compression, equipment, exposure, image quality, patient history, and quality assurance. Students receive 16 hours of didactic/lab/observation in the Penn College classroom/lab and in the clinic affiliates. (Formerly RAD 224) 1 Credit (1 Lecture) Prerequisite(s): RAD220 and RAD221 and RAD222 and RAD223 and RAD225 and RAD226 or RAD220 and RAD221 and RAD223 and RAD225 and RAD226 and RAD227 or RAD220 and RAD221 and RAD225 and RAD226 and RAD227 and RAD228. Spring Only.

Radiographic Anatomy and Positioning IV

RAD254

Radiographic concepts relating to upper and lower gastrointestinal systems, gallbladder, urinary system, OB/GYN, and pelvimetry radiographic examinations. A human diversity component promotes better understanding of patients, the patient's families, and professional peers through comparisons of value systems, cultural and ethnic influences, communication styles, socioeconomic influences, health risks, and life stages. Study includes the factors that influence relationships with patients and professional peers. (Formerly RAD246) 1.50 Credits (1.50 Lecture) Prerequisite(s): RAD220 and RAD221 and RAD225 and RAD226 and RAD227 and RAD228. Spring Only.

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