Best Practices in Assessment
Penn College’s academic deans have identified faculty who have crafted successful student learning outcomes activities that warrant replication. The “best practices” detailed below are presented as abstracts intended to whet interest. Faculty are encouraged to consult with the identified practitioners for more information.
Using Progressive Analysis in a Writing Intensive Course
Rhonda Davis, Esq.
This course is the advanced level of Legal Research and Writing and is Writing Enriched. Accordingly, the students are required to prepare 4 major writing assignments (each approximately 10 typed pages) to successfully complete the course. Each assignment builds upon the other. Students are provided a fact pattern in which a civil complaint is eventually filed and office and court documents are submitted as if the student were a paralegal; the instructor serves as the supervising attorney.
- The first assignment requires research regarding the civil action (irrespective of which party the firm represents) with a critical analysis of the primary authority governing the matter.
- The second assignment requires an objective analysis of the advantages both parties possess based upon the law.
- The third assignment requires preparing a subjective argument to the court, urging either granting/denying a trial court motion.
- The final assignment requires submission of an additional subjective argument about why an appeal from the trial court should be granted or denied.
This progressive analysis of advanced legal research and writing connects to the Penn College definition of assessment in that it is “systematic, iterative, collaborative, documented, and adaptable. It applies multiple measures, both qualitative and quantitative. It identifies strengths and areas that warrant improvement.”
Rubrics for Dual Use
Rubrics are provided to the student prior to each assignment so s/he has an understanding of both quantitative and qualitative analyses of her/his work. It provides the framework for each writing. Thus, the student can organize the writing, using the rubric(s) first as a guide, then as an evaluation of individual assessment. The third and fourth writing assignments comport with the Pennsylvania Rules of Civil and Appellate Procedure OR the federal rules of such (depending on the fact pattern).
A student may use his/her written products as evidence of the drafting of legal documents to portray to prospective employers the student’s worth as an exemplary paralegal.
Upon successful completion of this course the student will be able to:
- Understand primary sources of law and authority in legal analysis
- Use proper citation
- Apply and analyze case and statutory law
- Validate research
- Write case briefs and complex legal memoranda proficiently
- Analyze data to identify complex questions in legal research and writing
- Apply existing principles to the solution of such complex questions
- Make intelligent decisions when there are no pre-existing principles to govern the exact questions that are involved
- Analyze data to prepare an appellate brief.
Using a Rubric to Guide Capstone Presentation
Mary Jo Saxe
Assessment of the oral presentations in the Dental Hygiene Capstone course (DEN 495) is more objective and consistent with use of a rubric. The rubric provides straightforward criteria with performance expectations and grading standards which are provided in advance of the presentation. Students have access to the grading criteria (rubric) at the start of the semester, which allows them to assess the quality of their work prior to the presentation.
The evaluation utilizes a five (5) point Likert scale that attaches a weight of 1 or 2 to each element. Key component areas such as planning, implementation and assessment have a higher weight due to the significance in the capstone project. Other areas essential for a strong quality presentation are included as elements in the rubric but have a weight of one in the calculation. Points earned are divided by the possible points of 75 to calculate a final percentage grade.
Initially the evaluation form was used by all members of the audience. This changed as more students opted to do their presentations via DVD submission. Currently just the class instructor uses the rubric which provides a single grade for the presentation.
The rubric directs both the content and the delivery of the capstone report. Knowing the expectations at the start of the semester facilitates students' topic choice as well as the organization and presentation.
Multi-level Critique of Landscape Design
This assessment activity works toward making the “subjective” more concrete while providing students a three-tiered response to their projects. The project requires students to create a landscape design that satisfies the client’s expectation while also satisfying the principles related to a thorough and successful proposal.
The instructor creates a rubric that encompasses both needs. The rubric is applied, first, by the student-designer as a self-assessment, attaching his/her grade; it is then applied by a group of three or four peers who collectively study the proposal, arriving at a group grade. Finally, it comes to the professor, who determines the “official” grade, which most likely mirrors the first two grades.
This approach develops the students’ ability to appraise their own work critically and to honor client preferences/expectations (rather than their own), introducing the students to a level of professionalism necessary in their field.
Identified the need to provide additional instruction regarding design elements and overall functionality to move students beyond superficial evaluations. Also added a lesson to assist students in articulating their concepts.
Teamwork Survey for Industrial Project Management (Plastics)
The faculty and the advisory committee recognized a weakness in the major, specifically, students’ performance in a team/work group environment. To address this weakness, the faculty undertook a research project that, first, required students to respond to a survey instrument following their completion of the first team project. The survey results revealed the key roadblocks to effective teamwork. In response, the plastics faculty recommended that instructional strategies be embedded in the course, which required an adjustment to the lab-lecture hours. When the revised course is taught, the teamwork survey will function as a pre/post assessment.
This project yielded a formal report that connects the study to the College goals, to the academic school’s mission and goals, and to the program and course goals. The survey and resulting action demonstrate the inverted pyramid approach to assessment and stand as an example of “closing the loop.” The continued use of the survey instrument will ensure ongoing attention to the development of teamwork skills.
Business Management Capstone Assessment
Gerald (Chip) Baumgardner
A four-pronged assessment is built into the capstone and combines a commercially-prepared test with other measures:
- Application of the Major Field Test in Business (ETS instrument) offers norming as well as individual student performance information. The data enables the department to identify the strengths/weakness of its curricular approach and provides students with information about their cumulative mastery of the material.
- A rubric, mirroring program objectives, allows for individual assessment of each capstone presentation.
- Student Satisfaction Survey (initiated in 2002, thus providing longitudinal data) serves the faculty’s assessment review as well as the two agencies accrediting the major.
- The Business Strategy Game, an online simulation with 3,000 teams participating, provides Penn College students with another norming opportunity; moreover, the simulation promotes further development of technology and communication skills.
An analysis of student performance identified a need for a curriculum revision, adding a course in quantitative methods. In addition, faculty placed a stronger emphasis on oral communication skills within courses and adjusted the rubric for MGT 497, Business Policy and Strategy.
Four-Semester Research Project Culminating in Automotive Management Capstone
Students are introduced to the methodology required to complete a major research project, one that spans four semesters of work and that integrates the program goals with the goals of the baccalaureate core curriculum. From research proposal, précis, data collection, to the completed report that culminates in recommendations, the students’ theses incorporate statistics, research and writing skills, and technical/management skills related to the automotive industry. Students maintain a notebook of all related correspondence, drafts, and reference materials, which hones their organizational skills.
Additional content on research/credibility of sources in the field has been integrated within the courses; the program also underwent a minor curriculum change to alter the curriculum sequence.
Pre- and post-testing in Plastics Course
Pre- and post testing of students allow faculty to measure student progress as well as the effectiveness of teaching methodology. The data indicates student achievement from the start through the completion of the course, while also identifying topics/concepts that require additional focus. Four years of data has been collected and analyzed via this pre/post-test approach in an extrusion course; the data revealed a lower-than-anticipated improvement in one topic area.
In response to the data indicators, the course was modified on two levels: specific objectives are identified for each class meeting to help students focus on the major points and the course content was increased to respond to the topic area of concern. The pre/post assessment tool will be used in subsequent years to determine the success of these modifications.